As Trump completes his second year in office, the most brazen white supremacist, misogynistic, anti-working class, and authoritarian U.S. president in decades faces a growing number of crises. From the beginning, he has been the most unpopular president in modern U.S. history. A recent Gallup poll reported 38 percent approval of Trump’s job performance, and this may overstate his support.

Trump is viewed by scores of millions of people as an illegitimate president, partly because he lost the popular vote and partly because of his grotesque bigotry, bullying and buffoonery. Two years on, Trump’s rancid racism, shameless promotion of giant tax breaks and reduced regulations for the rich, heartless assault on social protections for the working class majority, and attacks on the media and the courts have already secured his legacy as one of the nation’s worst chief executives.

There’s also mounting evidence that Trump and his minions accepted Russia’s assistance in the 2016 election and obstructed justice to cover this up. Investigations have already resulted in felony charges against 26 Russian nationals, three Russian enterprises, Trump’s campaign chairman, his campaign vice chairman, his first national security adviser and his personal attorney. Trump’s son, Donald, and longtime adviser Roger Stone have expressed concern about being indicted.

Trump’s ostensibly charitable foundation has been forced to dissolve under the New York Attorney General’s supervision because of “a shocking pattern of illegality.” The Trump Organization, Trump’s tax payments and receipt of foreign emoluments, his campaign, his presidential transition and his administration are all under investigation. There’s growing public discussion of impeachment and calls for overturning the current U.S. Department of Justice policy prohibiting indictment of a sitting president.

Many of us who remember Watergate and Richard Nixon’s resignation are experiencing déjà vu. Regular appearances of former Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein and former White House Counsel John Dean on cable news programs confirm that we are again living through historic times.

Last month’s election results were a powerful rejection of Trump. The Democrats picked up 40 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and won almost 9 million more votes than Republicans nationally, the largest margin ever in a midterm election. With an influx of women and people of color, the House is more diverse than ever, though it still has a long way to go.

The GOP picked up only a couple of seats in Senate elections that heavily favored that party. While voter suppression and racist campaigns resulted in Republican gubernatorial wins in Florida and Georgia, the Democrats picked up seven governors’ seats, control of seven state legislative chambers and more than 300 state legislative seats.

Democrats’ control of the U.S. House of Representatives and enhanced power in many state governments cannot resolve the intractable economic and social problems of capitalism, uproot institutionalized white supremacy and sexism or end imperialist wars. But workers, people of color, women and decent-minded people from all backgrounds can exert intense, unrelenting pressure on both parties and help bring about an end to the Trump administration and its most horrific practices.

David Michael Smith, Ph.D., is a former professor of government at College of the Mainland.

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(66) comments

Rusty Schroeder

You haven't changed a bit, best money COM ever spent was firing you.

Thomas Sanchez

He is right on the money about Trump. Glad somebody has got balls to speak up before it is too late for all of us.

Carlos Ponce

So Thomas, you believe in a Marxist who thinks Chairman Mao was a great leader. This man is also anti-Israel and pro terrorist groups in the Middle East.[rolleyes]
Believe what you want. That's your right but it says an awful lot about you.

Emile Pope

As the market crashes...did Mexico put their payment for the wall on Visa so that could get rewards points?

Carlos Ponce

Emile, did you sit in David Michael's class? That would explain a lot of your posts.
And the stock market never crashed. If you knew anything about economics you would know that. Note: the stock market recently fell due to the Federal Reserve increasing interest rates. The Fed does not want the US economy "overheating". President Trump was against the increase.
Mexico is paying the United States after renegotiation of NAFTA but the billions go into the general fund. Nancy wants to use those funds for her "pet projects". VISA is not involved. No rewards points.

Jim Forsythe

Does this mean that the President wants the economy to overheat, since he was against the increase? The increase in interest rates does not explain the decrease in stock prices since Oct3, 2018 when it was 26828.39 to now at 23323.66
If funds are going into the general fund, they are not going to pay for the wall because funding for the wall is required to be part of the budget.That's what Trumps threat of shutting down the government is about.
NAFTA has not passed the Congress, so talk of billions going into the general fund is premature. The USMCA may not pass as people like Senate Republican John Cornyn from Texas expressed doubts it could pass Senate muster. “I know people are still going through the details but it’s not a foregone conclusion that it will get confirmation by the Senate.
The reason it may not pass is language such as
"the Free Trade Commission can make changes to the USMCA without the consent of Congress. In fact, the agreement completely undermines Congress’ Constitutional Article I, Section 8 power to regulate trade with foreign nations.”

As far as Nancy "pet projects" what ever that means, would have to be funded just like any project.


Carlos Ponce

"Does this mean that the President wants the economy to overheat, since he was against the increase?"
Trump wants a hot economy without the increase in interest rates. They tend to have a "cooling" effect on the economy.

Emile Pope

Tariff money does not go into the general fund. It goes to the individual companies. More garbage...

Carlos Ponce

David Michael taught history?????
You do know a president is elected by the Electoral College, not the popular vote. And President Trump is not the only US President who did not win the popular vote but won the presidency. Referring to Trump as "illegitimate" is ignorance coming from an uneducated person but coming from a person who was once a history professor crosses the line. I pity any person who sat in your class.
"The Democrats picked up 40 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and won almost 9 million more votes than Republicans nationally, the largest margin ever in a midterm election."
This midterm had a larger than usual midterm turnout but Democrats lost 54 House seats in the 1994 and 8 Senate seats. In 2010 Democrats lost 63 House and 6 Senate seats.
This year Republicans lost 40 House seats. Math lesson: 40 is less than 54 and 63. This was typical for a midterm. The party in power typically loses seats in a midterm. You should know that. What is unusual is that the Republicans GAINED Senate seats.
"Last month’s election results were a powerful rejection of Trump." Does that mean a MORE powerful rejection of Bill Clinton and Barack Obama since the Democrat Party lost more seats in those midterms than Republicans under Trump? Note to David Michael: Both men won re-election in the next general election.
Keep it up David Michael. Your column shows COM was right to fire you.

Emile Pope

Gerrymandering is why the redumbilcans didn't lose more seats...

Carlos Ponce

Supreme court says Emile is wrong.

David Smith

An average reader of this paper can only wonder why the GDN continues to give this man a platform to spew his false ideology .
Scores of millions think he's ilegitament?
Maybe you need to come out of retirement and teach the scores the process of electing a president...if you know what that is...nevermind ..no one would hire you
Its people like you that teach false lies to our youth resulting in the dumbing down of America.... and is so evident today in our diluted society.
COM did the right thing firing you .. the only thing they did wrong was wait so long.
Disclaimer.. I'm no relative of this "professor" .. and I approve this message

Victor Krc

After reading Smith's column I was reminded of a line from Shakespeare's Macbeth. "It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury signifying nothing".[yawn]

Randy Chapman

I'm surprised he takes issue with Russia. I always thought the communist/socialist professor idolized Russia. What a turncoat!

Diane Turski

Mr. Smith is absolutely correct on all counts. It is only a matter of time before the corrupt Trump administration is finally gone. Then it will be time to fix all the damage Trump and his cronies have done to our democracy ASAP!! This entire fiasco must be used as a learning experience so nothing like this international criminal conspiracy against the USA can ever happen again! And, for all the willfully blind who are still supporting this monstrous administration, you look very foolish! Tick! Tock!

Lisa Gray

Ms Diane, would you consider the Clinton's a crime free organization? Asking for a friend........

Diane Turski

I see that you are still following the deny, deflect and lie policy of your "tribe", Lisa. Therefore, your comment has no relevance to mine.

Carlos Ponce

But you didn't answer her friend's question, Diane. No need to wonder why......

Ron Shelby

Good editorial.

Bailey Jones

History will judge Trump. Personally, I think he's been great. All my life I've had to listen to the evangelical right preach their holier than thou morality. No more - they've embraced a man who is the antithesis of morality and have loss any shred of moral authority. For decades I've had to suffer the insults of Republicans who shamed the left for increasing the deficit. No more - any vestige of Republican financial discipline is out the door. In fact, Trump is doing what no Democrat could do - single handedly destroying the Republican party. Now that Democrats have infused Congress with the courage to exercise their Constitutional duties of oversight, checks and balances, we'll get to see behind the curtain. We'll see his tax returns that will show his foreign financial entanglements, how much Saudi cash has flowed through his hotel empire, and the extent that his campaign conspired with the Russians to influence the election. We know that his university was a fraud. We now know that his charity was a fraud. We already knew that his personal life story was a fraud (who calls People magazine pretending to be his own PR man?) We know that he is a pathological liar - lying more than any other public servant in the modern era. And we now that his base doesn't care. That magical 30% who have nothing to say other than to cry "communists!" while completely missing the irony that their President in in Putin's pocket. These are terrific times. I was a teenager during the Nixon years, I'm glad I've lived to see Trumpism, and its imminent, inevitable, failure.

Paul Hyatt

Dang hate much do you? Where wee you during the Obama years when him and his minions were breading the laws? Oh I know you were cheering him on as we all know that laws broken by demoncrats mean nothing, while the tiniest infraction done by anyone else means swinging in the gallows....

Carlos Ponce

"No more - they've embraced a man who is the antithesis of morality and have loss any shred of moral authority."
Time to put away your stones, Bailey. Christians aren't perfect - but they are forgiven.[innocent]

George Croix

I encourage the GDN to ALWAYS give a speaking platform to such people as ex-professor Smith.
It's GOOD to know such thought processes exist, and who harbors them.........

Kelly Naschke

I agree 100% George. Thanks to the ability to read this lunatics commentary over the years....my kids and my money went to San Jac.....COM wasn't even a consideration.

Jarvis Buckley

Interest rates have been raised by the Feds 7 times since our Presidents election . That explains the lowering of the market. Hardly a crash although it is uncomfortable for many with money in the market. It will regain the loses plus in the coming year. I find it irritating the folks make comments in a giddy fashion that don't actually have an investment in the market. If this article is a preview of democrat controlled congress. We are surely in for a bumpy ride.

Emile Pope

Three thousand points lower than at the start of the year??!!! Uncomfortable??!!!

Emile Pope

Make that 4000...

Carlos Ponce

People unfamiliar with economics should refrain from commenting on the stock market.
Let me put it simply:
The Fed only increases interest rates when the economy is RED HOT, SIZZLING, ON A TOWARDS GREATER PROSPERITY. Notice this was not done during the Obama years because that economy was anemic.
Increasing interest rates also causes a sell off on the stock market.
I suggest you borrow a high schooler's economics book and LEARN something, Emile.

Emile Pope

The stock market was never FOUR THOUSAND POINTS LOWER than it started the year during President Obama's administration. And your blathering doesn't change that...

Carlos Ponce

Emile, you haven't done your homework. If you cannot find a high schooler to loan you his or her economics book go to a book store and see if they have a "Stock Market for Dummies" book.

Jim Forsythe

The increase in interest rates does not explain the decrease in stock prices since Oct3, 2018 when it was 26828.39 to now at 22,859.60. The Dow closed at 19,827.25 on Inauguration Day, Jan. 20, 2017 and if it continues down all of Trumps gains will be gone..
Please read your "Stock Market for Dummies" and explain how the Fed increases interest rates has the dow going down to the levels that it is now. Many factors has caused this down turn. Carlos I can set up a meeting with my advisor and he can explain it to you .

Carlos Ponce

Jim, the RECENT decrease in stock prices is due to the increase in interest rates from the Fed. The previous decreases were due to other factors such as Brexit, the arrest of the Chinese business woman, the riots in France, the decrease in global stock markets, etc. The main problem stems from laziness of stock traders who rely on computer programs to buy and sell. Their algorithms are set to respond to news reports looking for key words. If your financial advisor tells you different get another one who knows what he's doing.

Jim Forsythe

If previous decreases were due to other factors, drop today would also be because of other factors.

Carlos , at what point is the falling of stock prices because of a quarter increase done ?
Carlos , how much of the sell off was because of one quarter % raise in interest rates? The dow is down another 415.68 today.
Relations with other countries, tariffs and the list goes on as factors as why this has happened. Another factor most do not talk about is the tax reduction that freed up cash for companies allowing them to buy back more stock, and now that most have that done, the price on those stocks has reduced.
We have had increases in the interest rate without a sale off in the past.

The Dow corrections, is on track for the worst December performance since the Great Depression in 1931, down more than 11 percent this month. If it remains this way, it would the first time ever that December is the worst month of the year for the index.

My Certified Fiduciary had me out of the market because he saw the possibility of this happing. Did yours?

Carlos Ponce

Stock market dropped today in fear of the partial government shutdown. Anybody who is informed will tell you that partial shutdown will only effect non-essential services. A big nothing. But the computer algorithms over react to such.

Jim Forsythe

If you remember I talked about curve inverting and what it could mean, and you played it off as a nothing .
You are trying to say that the possible shut down is the driving force for falling stocks. In the reasons for the prices drop, it may be at the bottom of a long list why stocks are reacting in a negative way.
Stock prices are almost random over short periods of time. It's important to remember that stocks derive their value from market expectations over periods that span years, if not decades. In the grand scheme of things, that some federal government services will operate with a skeleton crew of workers until the tug-of-war ends in Congress, it is a relative nonevent, as far as the stock market is concerned.For this reason, there's no need to panic over the current government shutdown and what it means for your stock as other things have more impact . It may cause some inconveniences in your daily life, but there's no historical precedent for federal employee furloughs resulting in meaningful price fluctuations in the stock market.
Algorithms have a place in investing. Day traders use them to help pick stocks because of the fast pace that they work under. I one I know that does well, he has been studying for years to be able to be on top of it ,using his knowledge and Algorithms ..
In the larger firms, algorithms are just one tool the tool box.
The algorithm does not know everything that is out there. It still has a lot of uncertainty, and therefore what it does is it makes predictions based on the data available. A lot of pieces are simply left out when creating a forecast, the noise is separated from the relevant data, but still this algorithm gives you a good idea of existing opportunities. Combined with other forms of stock analysis, the algorithm is an additional tool in making clever investment decisions

Carlos Ponce

"and you played it off as a nothing"
NOTHING is the word!
And the algorithm is connected to the internet. And it doesn't know everything - just everything on the internet.

Jim Forsythe

Like I said, they use algorithms as a tool. You may be thinking of a person that buys a program that has the green lights and red lights that they buy off TV. This type of system is used by a individuals and not professionals.
One type of algorithm is used is the Simple Linear Regression model: Simple linear regression is a statistical method that enables users to summaries and study relationships between two continuous (quantitative) variables.One of the most popular applications of Linear regression algorithm are in financial portfolio prediction.
Another type of algorithm used is Lasso Regression In finance, its application is seen in forecasting probabilities of default and Lasso-based forecasting models are used in assessing enterprise wide risk framework.
These two types of algorithm programs are just a tool used by professionals. Just as any tool, it is as good as the person that uses it. You would be hard pressed to find any professional that uses algorithm programs as the only way of looking at the market.

The national debt is increasing at a rate never before seen, debt is money borrowed (even if only on paper) , creating a demand for more to loan, thus creating a rise in interest rates. The tax cuts put a little money in some pockets, and a lot of money in big business coffers. Business used a lot of that money to buy back stock from private stockholders, creating some demand and driving the stock price up,,, when they got all they could or all they wanted , the demand leveled off, and prices dropped.
Tax cuts and excessive unfunded spending have a lot to do with it all.
These are just two of the reasons for the drop of stock prices.


Carlos Ponce

"This type of system is used by a individuals and not professionals."
Like I posted earlier - laziness. Some professionals are using computer algorithms, not those gadgets you are referencing. The human element, wisdom and experience are left out. If you have too many using that computer algorithm you get massive drops in the stock market every time someone says "BOO!". And that's what's happening.

Carlos Ponce

"The national debt is increasing at a rate never before seen,"
More Bullstuff. The National debt increased to 120% of GDP during World War II. We are not there, Jim.
As of As of December 3, 2018 the National debt was $21,824,097,352,310.
At the end of Obama's tenure, the National debt was about $20,245,000,000,000.
So most of that debt was incurred before Trump took office.

Jim Forsythe

Computer algorithms is what I'm talking about. If they are using something else it is not computer algorithms.
Who are the people you are talking about, as they are not professionals.
Lazy ones want to sell you Annuities. Much more profit for them and a lot less work.

Jim Forsythe

The national debt
My mistake as it is only within 5 percentage points of the record set in 1946, just after World War II.
This is not something to celebrate. Do you think the amount racked up since Trump took office is great?

Carlos Ponce

Too many "professionals" use those computer algorithms.

Jim Forsythe

Most if not all "professionals" use those computer algorithms.
Most if not all "professionals" use those computer algorithms. but not as the only tool.
Carlos which "professionals" do you know that only use computer algorithms?
Next time you go to your professional, ask him if he only uses computer algorithms!

Carlos Ponce

Plenty of articles out there on the topic, Jim. Too many use pre-programmed algorithms. Not as good as the computer between one's ears.

Emile Pope

5000 anyone?

Carlos Ponce

Don't worry about it Emile. The Fed is behind this. But when Trump thinks about firing the Fed chairman, the Emiles of the world throw a temper tantrum.

Emile Pope

trump appointed him. So it's trump's fault...

Carlos Ponce

There's more than ONE member on the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Emile. President Donald Trump has nominated Marvin Goodfriend and Nellie Liang to fill the remaining two vacancies.

Kelly Naschke

David Michael Smith Ph.d......piled higher and deeper. To think one could obtain such a level of "education"..... yet still be so ignorant.

Lisa Gray

It is with a good reason that this man is a FORMER professor at COM. Liberalism truly indicates a mental disorder.

Ron Woody

So the person espousing "rancid racism" has now pardoned Jack Johnson, Alice Johnson and supported passage of the First Step Act. WOW! if these are the acts of a racist, it really has lost its bite. I guess I have to look to Robert Byrd and those that opposed the Civil Rights Act and supported Jim Crow Laws. Does that mean if I am a White Supremacist that I need to vote Democrat. History tells me that is the case!

Gary Miller

For several years the Fed.Reserve kept interest rates at or near "ZERO" to help Obama's failed economy. The same Fed. Reserve now increases interest rates to slow the Trump economy. Is the Trump economy too good? Job creation has slowed because there are too few qualified workers available. Manufacturing employers are hiring un qualified workers and teaching them how to do the needed jobs. Democrats are panicking because welfare rolls are shrinking faster than the un employment rate.

Emile Pope

trump selected him.

George Croix

One for the history books?
Here's one......leading one to wonder just how many actual 'Russians' there were in the 2016 Presidential elections.......

"Democratic operatives, backed by a liberal billionaire and facilitated by a former Obama official, created thousands of fake Russian accounts to give an impression the Russian government was supporting Alabama Republican Roy Moore in last year’s election against now-Sen. Doug Jones.

The secret project, which had a budget of just $100,000 and was carried out on Facebook and Twitter, was revealed after the New York Times obtained an internal report detailing the efforts."

Jim Forsythe

Sen. Doug Jones wants a federal investigation over the project “to see if there were any laws that were broke.” If the Senate decides to do a investigation, some that will be looked at are Mikey Dickerson, Reid Hoffman.

George, the report you are talking about (The secret project) came from the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence . If you read all 101 pages of the report they talk about how we are being bombarded with trash from Russia, New Knowledge did the review.This is why investigations of Russia is important.
Upon request by the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI), New Knowledge reviewed an expansive data set of social media posts and metadata provided to SSCI by Facebook, Twitter, and Alphabet, plus a set of related data from additional platforms. The data sets were provided by the three primary platforms to serve as evidence for an investigation into the Internet Research Agency (IRA) influence operations.

Part of the report talks about we may have had narrative manipulation from a different adversary than just Russia.
One additional observation of note is an observation of absence: the data provided by Twitter did not include accounts, thought by many observers to be Russian, that were discovered to have engaged in narrative manipulation in 2017. One example of this is @umpire43, which engaged in spreading disinformation ; this account does not appear in the SSCI data set. It is still possible that such accounts were Russia-owned, but operated by a non-IRA entity. Alternately, they may have belonged to a different adversary

George Croix

Jim, the United States has been 'bombarded' with misinformation by Russia since the 1917 Revolution there.
The ONLY thing different here, the ONLY thing that ahs so many drawers in a wad, is that Trump won and Hillary lost.
Period.
If that's not so, then WHY did the then President of the United States, KNOWING of Russian attempts to influence the election months ahead of the time, not do more than verbally say 'Cut it out'? The answer is simple...he thought it would not keep Hillary from winning, and didn't want to make any waves pre-election.......
If Hillary had won, not a word ONE would have ever been said about 'Russian Interference' .....
Just like we'd never have known SHE was colluding WITH the Russians for dirt on Trump......oddly, the exact same thing now alledged in the other direction....
Typical...........

George Croix

ps:
We're JUST NOW getting to the point where the in-the-bag NYT will even report anything not following typical hysterical 'Russian' line.
Imagine, if you will, what the uproar would be had this same story stated that REPUBLICAN operatives had faked Russian bots to negatively influence an opposition candidate's support.....
[whistling][rolleyes]

Curtiss Brown

Not getting the majority of votes in a Presidential Election does not make you illegitimate. Getting the majority of Electoral College is what makes you legitimately President and that is what Trump did. I do not understand how a college professor of government can make such a mistake unless he is just letting his prejudices overcome what he knows is true.

Jose' Boix

Professor Smith has the right to express his views. However, we just have to consider that the ideologies expounded in this column are historically failed ones. Point one. Point two, is that most ardent and vocal supporters of such failed ideologies, do it from the safety and benefits of a capitalist system. Under the system that they denigrate, they are protected by the freedoms we all enjoy - not found in places like Cuba (where I was born), and the benefits of jobs, pensions, etc. etc. Finally, I would bet that many - if not all such proponents - have not had the real test of living in such environments and losing all you worked hard for. I know!

Paul Hyatt

So thankful that Mr. Smith no longer is infecting the minds of our youth out at COM. He has not a clue about history or logic and you can tell by his rantings above. Funny how we never heard from him during all of the law breaking years of the Obama and his law breading regime and minions.... How sad it must be to be filled with so much hatred towards our nation. If Mr. Smith loves to hate this nation so much and wants socialism so bad, my question to him is why is he still here and not in Venezuela, Cuba, China or even Russia....

Anne Reiswerg

Paul, Mr. Smith is not hating on America. He is hating on Donald Trump.
HUUUGE difference - no pun intended.

Carlos Ponce

Apparently Anne Reiswerg has not read David Michael's previous columns dating back over 20 years. Paul has. David Michael's rants did not begin with Donald Trump. There are columns where he hates on President Bush. David Michael also hates Israel and is pro terrorist groups like Hamas and Hezbollah.
I suggest you use your Rosenberg Library card and catch up on David Michael's diatribes in the Texas City Sun and the Galveston News archives.

Anne Reiswerg

Thank you for that advice Carlos. I have read Mr. Smiths past columns.
But I must confess that I only skim them, just as I only skim your long winded replies in these blogs.
I look forward to skimming your comments in 2019.
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

Carlos Ponce

"long winded" ????? A lot of good information in those posts.[beam]
But I have shown you some of what you've missed by "skimming" David Michael's columns. A good reader is enlightened and makes intelligent contributions to these forums. On the other hand, one who skims......[rolleyes]

George Croix

That skimming is OK.
That's exactly what Smith does: Attacks the parts of America he doesn't like, and skims over the rest so he can live here, complaining, instead of being in a prison in one of the countries he admires for their socialistic/communistic theory, for saying the same things.....
The '70's are calling.....caaaall hooome..............
[beam][beam]
Well, Merry Christmas to him, anyway....[innocent]

Carlos Ponce

Jim Forsythe: "Like I said, they use algorithms as a tool. You may be thinking of a person that buys a program that has the green lights and red lights that they buy off TV. This type of system is used by a individuals and not professionals."
But....
"84% of All Stock Trades Are By High-Frequency Computers … Only 16% Are Done By Human Traders"
And it's not just used by those companies involved in mutual funds:
"The proportion of US trading activity represented by buy and sell orders from mutual funds, hedge funds, pensions and brokerages, referred to as “real money” or institutional investors, accounted for just 16 per cent of total market volume in the form of buying, and 13 per cent via selling in the final quarter of last year, according to analysis by Morgan Stanley’s Quantitative and Derivative Strategies group."
https://www.zerohedge.com/contributed/2012-17-26/84-all-stock-trades-are-high-frequency-computers-%E2%80%A6-only-16-are-done-human-tra
Who's responsible for the stock market drop? HAL is.[ohmy]
Note: HAL (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a metaphor from the movie "2001 - A Space Odyssey" for computers that have taken over.
Jim Forsythe: "Like I said, they use algorithms as a tool." No, 84% of stock transactions are actually done by computers. "Trading by “real” investors is taking up the smallest share of US stock market volumes [since Morgan Stanley started keeping track 10 years ago.]" But that number is from 2012...........

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