1900 Storm statue

A bronze sculpture by David W. Moore is a memorial to the victims and survivors of the 1900 Storm.

We editors erred this week by allowing the 120th anniversary of The Great Storm to pass without acknowledgment.

That might very well have been the first time since 1900 that Sept. 8 came and went without mention of that historic event in the pages of The Daily News.

It was a dubious achievement, to say the least, and one for which we apologize.

As we’ve noted most years, The Great Storm came roaring out of the Gulf of Mexico on Sept. 8, 1900, destroying this island city and ensuring its place in the history of calamity.

The story has been told many times over those many years of the wind and water and death brought by that unnamed hurricane, and the acts of courage and sacrifice played out during its fury.

What The Great Storm did to Galveston and its people is only part of the story, though. What the survivors did for themselves after the storm is inspiring and probably more relevant these years later.

So, today we’ll remember the many dead and celebrate those who survived, rebuilt and prospered.

As many as 12,000 people died during the storm, at least 6,000 of them on the island. More than 3,600 homes were destroyed and the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, more than $720 million in today’s dollars.

The Great Storm reigns as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. But while the storm was phenomenal, so was the response of the people who survived.

“Sunday morning, the day after the disaster, began with the sound of bells from the ruined Ursuline Convent calling people to worship,” wrote historian David G. McComb in “Galveston: A History.”

By 10 a.m. Sept. 9, Mayor Walter C. Jones had called emergency meetings and by the end of the day had appointed a Central Relief Committee.

Ignoring advice from its sister paper, The Dallas Morning News, that it move temporarily to Houston, The Galveston Daily News continued publishing from the island and never missed an issue.

In the first week after the storm, telegraph and water service were restored. Lines for a new telephone system were being laid by the second.

“In the third week, Houston relief groups went home, the saloons reopened, the electric trolleys began operating and freight began moving through the harbor,” McComb wrote.

Residents of Galveston quickly decided they would rebuild.

The two civil engineering projects leaders decided to pursue — building a seawall and raising the island’s elevation — stand today and are almost as great in their scope and effect as the storm itself.

It’s impossible to stand anywhere in the historical parts of Galveston and get exactly the same perspective a viewer would have gotten 120 years ago; everything is higher.

The feat of raising an entire city began with three engineers hired by the city in 1901 to design a means of keeping the Gulf in its place.

Along with building a seawall, Alfred Noble, Henry M. Robert and H.C. Ripley recommended the city be raised 17 feet at the seawall and sloped downward at a pitch of 1 foot for every 1,500 feet to the bay.

McComb wrote that some people even raised gravestones and some tried to save trees, but most of the trees died. In the old city cemeteries along Broadway, some of the graves are three deep because of the grade raising.

The city paid to move the utilities and for the actual grade raising, but each homeowner had to pay to have the house raised.

By 1911, McComb wrote, 500 city blocks had been raised, some by just a few inches and others by as much as 11 feet.

The most apparent of Galveston’s efforts to prevent a repeat of the devastation is the seawall, which today runs from just past Boddeker Drive on the East End to just past Cove View Boulevard on the west.

The current span of just more than 10 miles was built in six sections in a period of almost 60 years.

McComb estimated it cost about $16 million to build the seawall and raise the grade.

It would cost $10 million a mile to build the seawall in today’s dollars — more than $100 million total.

While Galveston received financial help from the county, state and federal governments, a large part of the burden had to be carried by the city itself, at the expense of other projects.

McComb sums it up about as well as it can be:

“The public defenses against nature came at a high cost, but they succeeded for the most part. Its struggle for survival against nature through the application of technology represents the strongest tradition of Western civilization. Galveston’s response to The Great Storm was its finest hour.”

Like 1900, this year has been a year of calamity. Belated though it might be, today is good day to reflect on those islanders of 1900, on how they pulled themselves up, resolved to carry on, took care of themselves and each other.

We ought to ask what we can do now to ensure that 120 years from now historians will list 2020 among our finest hours.

• Michael A. Smith

Michael A. Smith: 409-683-5206; michael.smith@galvnews.com


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(2) comments

Bailey Jones

If it's lessons we're after, it's worth remembering that the 1915 hurricane was actually worse, but the actions taken after the 1900 storm rendered it relatively mild. COVID 19 has exposed weaknesses all across our economic and social underpinnings. We need to be building our seawall for the next, inevitable, and much worse, pandemic.

alvin sallee

Michael, I would like permission to print this column in my next book on Wharf Stories. It sums up what happened from the storm and what happened as a result. Well, done.

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