Cutting people open and sewing them back up for a living is a pretty stressful occupation to begin with, but some surgeons have tougher jobs than others.
Cancer surgeons are charged with removing all tumor cells on the first try. But tumor growth can be irregular, and it can be hard to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells during an operation. Imaging techniques like MRIs and CT scans can give surgeons a road map to the tumor, but they offer only limited help once an incision has been made.
This is because these images are merely snapshots — a single frame and dimension. Even three-dimensional images can only be viewed one frame at a time. In addition, the inside of the body is dynamic and it takes a skilled surgeon to understand the orientation of tissues and the precise margins where tumor tissue ends and regular tissue begins.
Because of this challenge, surgeons often have to remove healthy tissue to be sure all tumor cells are gone. This requires a special step — staining the removed tissue then looking at it under a microscope to identify the cells. The surgeon wants to be sure a margin of healthy tissue is removed so no tumor cells remain.
If tumor cells remain, they will grow and a second operation may be necessary to remove more cancerous tissue. Again, the removal of additional healthy tissue will be necessary.
But what if a surgeon could distinguish cancer cells from normal cells during surgery?
It seems impossible. Each cell is microscopic, thousandths of a millimeter. Just observing cells takes special staining and high-powered optics.
But scientists at the University of Missouri and Washington University in St. Louis are working on the impossible. They are developing cancer goggles that will allow surgeons to see tumor cells right in the operating room. This new technology uses LS301, a fluorescent dye combined with a short chain of amino acids called peptide that is only absorbed by cancer cells and glows under infrared light. This dye specifically stains cells from prostate, colon, breast and liver cancers, among others. Patients can be injected with the dye beforehand and it will last through a procedure.
These special goggles will illuminate cancer cells with LS301 using an infrared light source. A surgeon can distinguish glowing cancer cells from normal cells and observe when they are completely removed. As a result, the surgeon would not need to remove a margin of healthy tissue to be sure all cancerous tissue is gone. This may greatly improve success rates from surgeries to remove cancerous growths.
Currently, this technique is being perfected in veterinary surgeries to guide the removal of tumors in pets and is not yet ready for use with humans. If effective, it will be a great resource for patients undergoing tumor removal surgery in the future.